i would send this text exclusively to a friend here, but i lost his email (hehe). so I decided to start a discussion to everyone who want to know or talk about the zines history in your country to share with you all!
here´s the brazilian zines history:
THE STORY OF THE ZINE PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL
To explain about the zine prodution in Brazil, I´ll use the classification adopted by Henrique Magalhães in his important book “o que é fanzine” (what is a fanzine”) (Ed. Brasiliense, Coleção Primeiros Passos, 1993). It can be divided in:
1) the pioners (1965 to 1976)
2) the consolidation (1977 to 1982)
3) the expansion (1983 to 1986)
4) the dispersion (1987 to 1990)
5) the actual phase.
The first brazilian zine was the “Boletim do Intercâmbio Ciência – Ficção Alex Raymond” (Alex Raymond science – ficcion intercambial boulletin) first printed in 10/12/1965, with 300 copies, made by mimeographer, distribued for free by mail. His first phase lasted 12 editions, released with 600 copies. The second phase lasted 10 editions and was released in 1974 so-called “Fanzine”. His editor was Edson Rontani, a comics collector and writer, living in Piracicaba (São Paulo state). In 4/1968, was released in Machado (city in the Minas Gerais state) the “Boletim do Herói” (Hero´s Boulletin); edited by Agenor Ferreira. It had only one page each edition, was released till 1971, and had a second phase during 1978 – 1980, with 28 editions released.
Other of these firsts zines was “Boletim do Clube do Gibi” (1971) (Comics club boulletin), edited by Sércio Pereira in São Paulo city; the misterious “Vivendo os Quadrinhos” (1971) (Living the Comics) released by an unknown editor (the editions came credited by Estúdio 7 and C.I.J.); “Na Era dos Quadrinhos” (1970) (In the Comics Era) had 37 editions released till 1973, and had a second phase after 1977, off-set pressed (was the first brazilian zine released this way); Focalizando os Quadrinhos (focusing the comics); De Olho nos Quadrinhos (Looking Out the comics); and Nostalgia dos Quadrinhos (Comics Nostalgia), first released in 1976 and edited till present day, with more than 100 editions released. At this time, born the zine Historieta, one of the most classical zines about comics, edited by Oscar Kern. It was revolutionary in his format; the pages were pressed horizontaly in rotative press (unique case in Brazil). Had more that 100 pages each edition, and 1500 copies. After 8 editions, turned a magazine (released by Press Editorial) but lasted only one edition; so back to be a zine, with undefinitive periodicity, and 100 copies. Lasted till 1999 when Kern died.
In this phase, the zines production in Brazil wasn´t merely a curiosity, it started to consolide itself with personal editors and permanent contacts. That´s the most important to make zines as Historieta, Boletim dos Quadrinhos and Boletim do Herói alive. In 1980, was released O Lobinho (“the little wolf”) the first brazilian photocopied zine. To be true, O Lobinho was pressed in USA, because their editor, Raul Veiga, worked in various american cities, even in Alaska. He had various contacts with american and brazilian editors, so O Lobinho was the most well-informed comics brazilian zine at time. At the same tame, was released other classical zines as Opar Boletim (1978); Quadrimania, edited by Franco de Rosa, that some years later will be one of the greatest brazilian comics editor; and the obscure Comix, released by unknown editors (they signed the texts as comics characters, as Bruce Wayne and Buck Rogers) and their trademark was speak bad about great comics editors and magazines.
During the eighties, was easier to publish a zine in photocopy and off-set. So some zines started to be released even with colour covers, produced in artistic way ( the editor painted each copy). Started to be edited more “especific” zines; the zines were only about releases of greater editors and opinions, now are more personal, as Quadrix, that only talk about the brazilian comics; Hiperespaço, edited by César Silva, about Science Fiction and acid comments about new comics releases – this one is edited till present days; O Grupo Juvenil, about famous and obscured 40 / 50´s comics (released till present days, too); Polítiqua (about politics and comics).
Between 1984 and 1990, Brazil had a strong economical crisis. This made various comics books to be cancelled. The same happened with some zines. But the zines had a greater problem; they all seemed do get a “dead end”. All the zines seemed to be the same, talking about the same things. This situation generated marvelous and truly historical discussions in letters foruns published in zines as Opinião (edited by Paulo Montenegro), Politiqua (by José Carlos Ribeiro) and Nhõ Quim (by Henrique Magalhães). Meanwhile, other comic book writers started to do a totally personal production, with zines that was totally revolutionary to the brazilian (and even the world) comics. Artists as Flávio Calazans (Barata zine), Joacy Jamys (Sungularplural zine), Alberto Monteiro, Henry Jaepelt, Moacir Torres, Laudo, Edgard Guimarães...
Here I write in a more personal way, because that´s a phase that I lived myself.
The economical crisis had passed, and estabilished after 1995, with some economical plans. The people had more money to buy comics, and the zines returned with more quantity and quality. Zines as Panacea (edited in São Paulo) and Grimoire (edited in Rio de Janeiro) brought quality, good texts, and triyng to find a more diversified public. The zines don´t want to be only distribued in p.o. boxes anymore. They wanted to be find in comics shops, rock gigs, great comics meetings. Comics already estabilished, as Chiclete com Banana (greater undergound comic in Brazil) and Animal had columns to coment zines, and closer a larger public. At this time, started the zine Informativo de Quadrinhos Independentes, edited by Edgard Guimarães. This zine - edited till present days – was like a “pub” for all the brazilian zinesters. New and old zine editors had there their releases divulgued, and everybody can meet each other contact. Was so great such zine significance that it won various times the Ângelo Agostine prize (organized by Worney de Souza, that´s the greater prize for zines in Brazil).
The XXI century
With the economy safe, and the facility to publish zines – even with home printers taking copies – during 1997 and 2001 Brazil had a enormous quantity of zines published. Never in all the history you can see so many zines as during this time. But, during 2003 – 2005, they started to dissapear again. What happened? Edgard Guimarães said in one interview, the brazilian youth started to get more interessed in other entertainments, as video games and computers, leaving behind the comics. As consequence, the new zine editors don´t like to do printed zines anymore. Started to born the virtual zines, the e-zines, the blogs, the net published comics. Where all this will carry us? Don´t miss the next edition.....